In simple language, an argument is an exchange of heated words. But in logical terms, an argument is a series of statements or facts that lead to a conclusion and attempts to support a particular point of view or idea. This conclusion is drafted after justifying the statements with logical reasoning that lead to a conclusion.
No matter which writing type you are drafting an argument for, it is essential to give it structure and meaning to ensure that the content is strong. Only a well-constructed argument will allow you to provide logical reasoning making your essays and papers stand firm.
Especially when drafting an argumentative document, the arguments need to be substantial. This article is written to discuss the main strategies and types of arguments.
Continue reading to learn different types of arguments and their usage in your essays and papers.
What are the Types of Arguments?
Arguments are a technique to persuade the audience of your viewpoint, and they can take many forms. However, there are three basic structures or types of arguments that you will encounter while drafting assignments for your academics.
The following are the types of arguments:
- Classical or Aristotelian Argument
- Rogerian Argument
- Toulmin Argument
Each of these argument types serves a different purpose. It is important to identify the rhetorical situation in order to select the right argument type for your document. In simple words, the writer has to figure out what is going to best work for the audience in relation to the topic and its problem.
We shall now discuss each type in detail.
The classical or Aristotelian argument is a form of argument developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. According to this argument type, the writer aims to persuade or convince the readers about something.
The goal is to convince the audience using strategies about a certain side of the issue. The classical argument uses ethos, pathos, and logos in the most persuasive way possible.
If you are drafting an essay using the classical argument, use the following format to structure your essay.
- Introduce the Issue - The first section of the essay is the introduction. It is here where the topic problem is introduced and put forward for the audience. At the end of the introductory problem, present the main argument or the thesis statement.
The purpose of this is first to let the audience know what the main claim is and then provide reasoning to support it.
- Present the Case - Present your case to the audience by providing details on why something must be done or why something is not working. The explanation will be provided in different paragraphs of the body section of the essay.
- Address the Counter Arguments - In the body section of an essay, also provide the opposing arguments to present the other side as well. Provide a counter to each argument one by one.
- Provide your Evidence - After providing the counter-arguments, share strong and logical evidence to prove your side better and the best side.
- Draft a Conclusion - In the conclusion of your essay, restate the main argument and summarize the major points. If your document is based on an issue that requires change, provide a ‘Call-to-Action’ as well.
Classical Argument Example (PDF)
A Rogerian argument is an argument type that focuses on finding a middle ground between the audience and the writer. In many situations, the audience doesn’t fully agree with the writer’s argument.
When the writer realizes that the audience is difficult, he attempts to find a middle ground developing a win-win situation for both the audience and himself. This argument time is extremely convincing and helps the writer understand his own biases.
The Rogerian argument strategy structures your document in the following way:
- Provide an Introduction - In the first section of your essay, introduce the problem statement. It will be the major or central argument of the document.
- Acknowledge the Counter Argument - Present an acknowledgment of the other side of the argument in a few paragraphs before you move on to support your claim.
- Provide your Argument - Without dismissing the other side, present information and evidence to support your argument. Make sure not to elaborate on this section and keep the explanation restricted to a few paragraphs.
- Propose a Middle Ground - After presenting your argument, bring both sides of the argument together. Present benefits of the middle ground to the audience and make sure to use an equally respectful tone. As this is the main part of the essay for this strategy, provide a detailed explanation.
- Conclude the Discussion - The last or the conclusion section of your document should present a restated balanced perspective about both sides of the argument. Moreover, present how both sides benefit the audience.
Rogerian Argument Example (PDF)
A Toulmin argument is a structure developed by Stephen Toulmin to analyze arguments. This argument type is used when there are no clear or absolute solutions to the issues and problems. It takes into account the complexity of the situations.
According to the Toulmin method, there are six elements to analyze and present the argument:
Let’s discuss them in detail.
- Claim - It is the writer’s statement of opinion to make the audience believe that the claim is true.
- Grounds - It is the collection of data, facts, and supporting material on which the claim is based. Basically, the grounds are the facts and reasonings, making a case for your claim or stance.
- Warrant - It connects or links the grounds with the claims. It is the warrant that allows the audience to understand how the grounds support the claims.
- Backing - In order to provide more support to the claim, the backing is done by addressing different questions and aspects related to the claim.
- Qualifier - The qualifier provides an understanding that a claim is not always true in all situations. Using broad qualifiers can make it harder for the writer to support his claims. This is the reason it is advised to use qualifiers such as ‘some,’ ‘many,’ etc.
- Rebuttal - The rebuttal is the addressing of the opposing views and the counter-arguments. They are used to strengthen the original arguments of the document.
Toulmin argument Example (PDF)
back to top
How to Structure an Argument for an Essay?
Having a strong argument and good supporting information is worthless if the argument is not structured. When drafting a formal document, it is essential to shape your statement to make it effective.
The following are the professional steps used in structuring an argument:
- Come Up With an Interesting Topic - For your document, choose an arguable and strong topic. Your topic should motivate the audience to read your entire essay. Drafting an argumentative essay will become more comfortable if your topic is debatable or controversial.
- Identify the Type of Claim you Want to Draft for Your Essay - When drafting an argumentative essay, five general claims can be selected. Choose a claim that suits your purpose:
Decide on the argument type, whether it is Toulmin, deductive and inductive, etc. Then decide the structure you want to follow in shaping your essay.
Consult credible and authentic sources to gather information for your deductive, inductive argument, etc.
Draft an essay outline and organize the gathered data accordingly.
Draft an introduction with a strong claim or premises
Make sure to develop a logical claim.
Write the conclusion that perfectly goes with the argument type you chose for the essay.
- Fact - Is your argument true or false?
- Definition - Meaning of the argument
- Value - Importance and significance of the argument
- Causes and effects of the problem
- Policy - What to do to solve the problem?
back to top
Coming up with a fair and structured argument can be a challenge. If your analyzing and persuading skills are not healthy, drafting an argumentative or persuasive essay can be daunting.
For this purpose, experts suggest getting professional help from qualified essay writers. CollegeEssay.org is an essay writing company that provides custom services for all your academic assignments.
Whether you seek assistance for an argumentative essay or a college essay, professional writers at CollegeEssay.com are at your service. Simply get their aid by placing an order at the most affordable prices and hire an expert.