The college student's guide to framing arguments - types and examples

The simplest form of an argument is to speak with someone and try to convince him about a certain position. We often argue with another person during a quarrel but academically a proper argument is slightly different. It includes logic, critical thinking followed by a conclusion. It does not necessarily include criticizing another person but it can also be used to support other people's stance. Arguments during a verbal fight do not include any arguments rather you can call them assertions. A good argument means that you should include some facts and logic into your assertion.

The facts and figures in your assertion would make your argument effective or simply a good argument. You should know the difference between an argument and an assertion. Here are some examples of assertions. God exists, Shakespeare wrote the play Hamlet, abortion is immoral, and the American Civil War was caused by dissimilarities over slavery. You can observe that the above phrases are descriptive and do not argue in favor of or against anything.

How to make an argument?

A proposition is important while framing an argument. Remember that a good argument means a true and authentic proposition. For example, the above phrases are informational; no one can say that these are true or false. A good proposition can only be either true to false, if a statement only contains one factor then is it not a good statement so the proposition. Only a good proposition can make a good argument that is why it should also include inference, premise, and conclusion. For example:

  • Businessmen earn a lot of money, it is a premise.
  • I want to earn a lot of money too, it is also a premise.
  • I should become a businessman, it is a closing phrase or conclusion.
  • It is not a good argument because it lacks inference; it is the logic in your argument. You can also call a conclusion as inference in an argument. Sometimes it is difficult to link the inference and the premise with the conclusion, for example:

  • Businessmen can earn a lot of profit from his business, it is a premise.
  • With a lot of profit comes to a lot of money, a person can travel the world, it is also a premise.
  • Due to huge profits businessmen can travel. ( it is an inference, from 1 to 2)
  • I also want to travel the world, it is a premise.
  • I should become a businessman. (inference from 3 to 4)

You can observe that your argument is not complete without inference and you should link it with premise and conclusion. In other words, it works as a bridge in forming a good argument. A good argument can have two types of claims, factual and inferential. One offers evidence while others express an idea respectively. It was a basic structure of an argument to understand it completely you should go through the ‘types of argument’ so that you can use them accordingly. I am writing down some types and examples of an argument. You can use these as guidance as it would help you to form your own.

Types and examples of arguments

You can only write a good argument if you know all attributes and types. First, you should determine what you want to argue about, it would help you to write an argument. For your guidance, I am writing down types of arguments you can follow while writing a college essay.

Toulmin Argument

Stephen Toulmin was a British philosopher, he analyzed moral reasoning and developed practical ways to evaluate arguments. He mentioned six interrelated components in his diagram. These components help in the field of computer science, communication, and rhetoric. In simple words, you can say this argument model can be adopted by using six interrelated components. These components are claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, backing, and rebuttal. For example:

  • John’s father should use a listening device. (Claim)
  • 70% of people around the world face hearing difficulty (Ground)
  • Hearing devices help people to hear well. (Warrant)
  • Hearing devices are freely available in markets. (Backing)
  • Most people benefit from hearing aids. (Qualifier)
  • Companies often have a support desk for people’s benefit. (Rebuttal)

Rogerian Argument

Carl Rogers was a psychologist who tried to find common grounds about any issue. This argument helps to shape the rhetorical or academic argument. It enables you to deal with any problem effectively but being an essay writer you may have to face two opposing ideas. The basic parts of this argument are an introduction, side A, side B, the bridge, and the compromise.

  • Issue: First identify the issue that you are dealing with.
  • Introduction: In the introduction, you should be sure about compromise and intent. Make sure to cover both sides of arguments like opponents believe and proponents believe.
  • Side A: You should pick a solid position so that you can convey your thoughts more effectively.
  • Bridge: It combines your two sides or points A with point B. Sometimes it also tries to convince both sides on a single issue.
  • For example A teenage boy presents arguments regarding why he needs a cell phone that will enable him to text and use the internet.

Persuasive Argument

It is a most common form of argument, you can say that every argument is a persuasive one but trust me it is more than that. Some arguments primarily introduce new research while others interpret things. Persuasive specifically deals with changing someone's mind into believing something new. You may have seen such types of arguments in an opinion article where the writer tries to persuade you about an issue.

For example, if the article is about climate change then he would present some facts and figures in argumentative form and he would persuade you to take immediate actions. Your argument should be well articulated about an issue. If it is possible then try to include a counter-argument paragraph as it would add credibility in your essay. For example, environmental activist Greta Thunberg persuaded the audience to take immediate action to reduce the impacts of climate change.

Lastly, you can also take help from a reliable essay writing service to complete a perfect argumentative essay for you in no time.

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